Metallurgy is the study of...metal! More specifically the alloys and percent ratio of elements that combined to make metal have certain electrical, thermal, or ductile properties.Depending on the part that is being made determines what sort of properties that part needs to have. Example: pieces close to the engine need to be able to absorb a lot of heat.
Everyday I get to analyze iron samples for chemistry and make sure the samples fall within specific ranges in order to determine if the iron is "good" or "bad". Usually the iron samples fall within the range, but every so often someone makes a mistake and the lab must capture the discrepant iron.
This is the spectrometer...it uses an argon spark in order to 'excite' the electrons of particular elements and then fiber optics read and interpret the amount of energy caused by the argon.